- Introduction ::BotswanaBackground:Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.Geography ::BotswanaLocation:Southern Africa, north of South AfricaGeographic coordinates:22 00 S, 24 00 EArea:total: 581,730 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 48land: 566,730 sq kmwater: 15,000 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than TexasLand boundaries:total: 4,013 kmborder countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:semiarid; warm winters and hot summersTerrain:predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwestElevation extremes:lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 mhighest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 mNatural resources:diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silverLand use:arable land: 0.45%permanent crops: 0%other: 99.55% (2011)Irrigated land:14.39 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:12.24 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.19 cu km/yr (42%/19%/39%)per capita: 107.3 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibilityEnvironment - current issues:overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resourcesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the countryPeople and Society ::BotswanaNationality:noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)Ethnic groups:Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%Languages:Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English (official) 2.1%, other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)Religions:Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)Population:2,127,825 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 144note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expectedAge structure:0-14 years: 33.2% (male 360,053/female 346,691)15-24 years: 21.8% (male 229,713/female 233,546)25-54 years: 36.7% (male 411,019/female 370,395)55-64 years: 4.3% (male 40,639/female 51,305)65 years and over: 4% (male 33,868/female 50,596) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 59.1 %youth dependency ratio: 53.3 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 %potential support ratio: 17.3 (2013)Median age:total: 22.7 yearsmale: 22.6 yearsfemale: 22.7 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.35% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 90Birth rate:21.69 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 78Death rate:12.91 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 22Net migration rate:4.68 migrant(s)/1,000 populationcountry comparison to the world: 23note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2013 est.)Urbanization:urban population: 61.7% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.07% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:GABORONE (capital) 202,000 (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:160 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 62Infant mortality rate:total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 145male: 10.34 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 54.47 yearscountry comparison to the world: 205male: 55.98 yearsfemale: 52.92 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Contraceptive prevalence rate:52.8%note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)Health expenditures:8.3% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 55Physicians density:0.34 physicians/1,000 population (2006)Hospital bed density:1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 99% of populationrural: 92% of populationtotal: 96% of populationunimproved:urban: 1% of populationrural: 8% of populationtotal: 4% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 75% of populationrural: 41% of populationtotal: 62% of populationunimproved:urban: 25% of populationrural: 59% of populationtotal: 38% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:24.8% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 2HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:320,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 18HIV/AIDS - deaths:5,800 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne disease: malaria (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:11.2% (2008)country comparison to the world: 128Children under the age of 5 years underweight:11.2% (2008)country comparison to the world: 65Education expenditures:7.8% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 15Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 85.1%male: 84.6%female: 85.6% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 12 years (2006)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 45,036percentage: 9 %note: data represents children ages 7-17 (2006 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 13.6%country comparison to the world: 94male: 13.2%female: 14% (2000)Government ::BotswanaCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Botswanaconventional short form: Botswanalocal long form: Republic of Botswanalocal short form: Botswanaformer: BechuanalandGovernment type:parliamentary republicCapital:name: Gaboronegeographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 Etime difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Pikwe*, South East, SouthernIndependence:30 September 1966 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)Constitution:March 1965; effective 30 September 1966Legal system:mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Ponatshego KEDIKILWE (since 2 August 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Ponatshego KEDIKILWE (since 2 August 2012)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014); vice president appointed by the presidentelection results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NALegislative branch:bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 35-member body with 8 ex-officio members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 27 non-permanent members serving five-year terms, of which 22 are indirectly elected with the remaining 5 appointed by the President) and the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)elections: National Assembly elections last held on 16 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 53.3%, BNF 21.9%, BCP 19.2%, BAM 2.3%, other 3.3%; seats by party - BDP 45, BNF 6, BCP 4, BAM 1, other 1Judicial branch:highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in three districts); Magistrates Courts (one in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's CourtPolitical parties and leaders:Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Daniel KWELAGOBE]; Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Gomolemo MOTSWALEDI]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Bernard BALIKANI]; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS [Themba JOINA]; New Democratic Front or NDF [Dick BAYFORD]note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]Political pressure groups and leaders:First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)other: diamond mining companiesInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Tebelelo Mazile SERETSEchancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036telephone:  (202) 244-4990FAX:  (202) 244-4164Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Michelle D. GAVINembassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaboronemailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaboronetelephone:  395-3982FAX:  318-0232Flag description:light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmonyNational symbol(s):zebraNational anthem:name: ""Fatshe leno la rona"" (Our Land)lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETEnote: adopted 1966Economy ::BotswanaEconomy - overview:Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. However, economic growth was negative in 2009, with the industrial sector shrinking by 30%, after the global crisis reduced demand for Botswana's diamonds. Although the economy recovered in 2010, GDP growth has again slowed. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $16,800 in 2012. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP, 70-80% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Botswana's heavy reliance on a single luxury export was a critical factor in the sharp economic contraction of 2009. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. According to official government statistics, unemployment reached 17.8% in 2009, but unofficial estimates run much higher. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond production within the next two decades overshadows long-term prospects. A major international diamond company signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 to move its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone by the end of 2013. The move may support Botswana's downstream diamond industry.GDP (purchasing power parity):$32.06 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 112$30.88 billion (2011 est.)$29.39 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$17.62 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:3.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 895.1% (2011 est.)7% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$17,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 79$16,700 (2011 est.)$16,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:34.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1539.9% of GDP (2011 est.)37.3% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 39.8%government consumption: 20.5%investment in fixed capital: 30%investment in inventories: 5.4%exports of goods and services: 35.7%imports of goods and services: -43.6%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 2.1%industry: 45%services: 52.9% (2011 est.)Agriculture - products:livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnutsIndustries:diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; livestock processing; textilesIndustrial production growth rate:0% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Labor force:1.288 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 135Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: NA%industry: NA%services: NA%Unemployment rate:17.8% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 1557.5% (2007 est.)Population below poverty line:30.3% (2003)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Distribution of family income - Gini index:63 (1993)country comparison to the world: 3Budget:revenues: $5.508 billionexpenditures: $5.393 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:31.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):0.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Public debt:14.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13717% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:1 April - 31 MarchInflation rate (consumer prices):7.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1818.5% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:9.5% (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 2510% (31 December 2009 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:11% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7511% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$1.361 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 138$1.153 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$7.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 114$7.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.45 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 148$1.114 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$4.44 billion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 88$4.107 billion (31 December 2011)$4.076 billion (31 December 2010)Current account balance:$231.3 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 52$271 million (2011 est.)Exports:$6.259 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 105$6.458 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textilesImports:$6.938 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 112$6.275 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal productsReserves of foreign exchange and gold:$7.839 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 78$8.082 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$2.437 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 143$2.396 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:pulas (BWP) per US dollar -7.6179 (2012 est.)6.8382 (2011 est.)6.7936 (2010 est.)7.1551 (2009)6.7907 (2008)Energy ::BotswanaElectricity - production:417 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Electricity - consumption:3.118 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 131Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 160Electricity - imports:2.89 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 43Electricity - installed generating capacity:132,000 kW (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 6Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 107Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 78Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 156Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 105Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 153Refined petroleum products - consumption:15,420 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Refined petroleum products - imports:19,060 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 105Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 98Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:3.841 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 130Communications ::BotswanaTelephones - main lines in use:149,600 (2011)country comparison to the world: 135Telephones - mobile cellular:2.9 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 130Telephone system:general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stationsdomestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 140 telephones per 100 personsinternational: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)Internet country code:.bwInternet hosts:1,806 (2012)country comparison to the world: 163Internet users:120,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 154Transportation ::BotswanaAirports:74 (2013)country comparison to the world: 71Airports - with paved runways:total: 10over 3,047 m: 22,438 to 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 6914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 641,524 to 2,437 m: 5914 to 1,523 m: 46under 914 m:13 (2013)Railways:total: 888 kmcountry comparison to the world: 93narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 17,916 kmcountry comparison to the world: 117note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and other 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)Military ::BotswanaMilitary branches:Botswana Defense Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Wing Command, Defense Logistics Command, Special Forces Group (2013)Military service age and obligation:18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 557,647females age 16-49: 531,095 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 340,949females age 16-49: 302,332 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 23,649female: 23,063 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:2.8% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 43Transnational Issues ::BotswanaDisputes - international:none"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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BOTSWANA — Depuis son indépendance, le Botswana s’est toujours distingué de ses voisins par la stabilité d’une vie politique fondée sur le multipartisme et des élections libres, et par sa capacité à gérer très habilement une rente minière particulièrement… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Botswana — [bät swä′nə] country in S Africa, north of South Africa: formerly the British territory of Bechuanaland, it became independent (1966) & a member of the Commonwealth: 224,607 sq mi (581,730 sq km); pop. 1,327,000; cap. Gaborone … English World dictionary
Botswana — Republic of Botswana Lefatshe la Botswana … Wikipedia
Botswana — /bot swah neuh/, n. a republic in S Africa: formerly a British protectorate; gained independence 1966; member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 1,500,765; 275,000 sq. mi. (712,250 sq. km). Cap.: Gaborone. Formerly, Bechuanaland. * * * Botswana… … Universalium
Botswana — Lefatshe la Botswana (tn) Republic of Botswana (en) République du … Wikipédia en Français
Botswana — Republic of Botswana Republik Botsuana … Deutsch Wikipedia
Botswana — Botsuana * * * Bo|ts|wa|na: internationale Schreibung für ↑ Botsuana usw. * * * Botswana, Kurzinformation: Fläche: 581 730 km2 Einwohner: (2000) 1,6 Mio. … Universal-Lexikon
Botswana — (Republic of Botswana) ► Estado de África austral. Limita con Namibia y Zambia al N, con Zimbabwe al E, con la República de Sudáfrica al E y S y con Namibia al O. Su extensión es de 570 000 km2 con un total de 1 576 500 h. La capital es Gaborone … Enciclopedia Universal
Botswana — noun a landlocked republic in south central Africa that became independent from British control in the 1960s • Syn: ↑Republic of Botswana • Instance Hypernyms: ↑African country, ↑African nation • Part Holonyms: ↑Africa … Useful english dictionary
Botswana — noun A country in Southern Africa (formerly Bechuanaland). Official name: Republic of Botswana … Wiktionary